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Allah SWT said:
Translation: Muslims! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become righteous.
Hassan Basri said: When you hear Allah saying, beware Because this speech is meant to prevent you from doing something, ordering or something, Imam Jafar said: Pleasure brings down the pain and sorrow of worship. Knowledge is to be invoked by Allah through this letter. The known space of the preacher address has been used. The preaching has been directed towards Nada. (Alazina) is name received which indicates a previous acquaintance and previous companionship. (Aamano) The former acquaintance was between the speaker and the addressee, And the secret and the connection between the two was known. This is expressed by the word (Meaning Allah knows some of the servants to be faithful and the servants also know to be their believers, So the secret to being honest, There is such a description and such a relationship that both the speaker and the addressee are aware of, It will be called by mentioning this attribute) Means, O those people! My secret is reserved for faith and you keep it secret in your heart and mind with sincerity (Kutiba) Assumed, It has been set. (Al-Siyaam) is Fasting. It is a source like stopping. The wind will stop, it will stop, the horses stopped at speed, stopped, it will be noon, Half here half there is done. Reaching the middle of the sky, the sun stops for a while.
According to a poet, when the day stopped and reached the middle, the man became silent. Stopped talking. Allah said: (Ini Nazartu Lirehman Souma) I have made a vow to Allah to remain silent today. In Shari’ah, fasting means, Man has to abstain from food and drink and adultery and forsake sins. Fasting was obligatory on other prophets and nations. Adam was obliged to fast first, From Abdul Malik, his son Haroon has quoted from him the words of his father Ali bin Abi Talib. Ali said! One day at noon when the Messenger of Allah was in the hujra, I went and greeted, The Messenger of Allah said after answering. Gabriel is greeting you. I said (Alaaik Wa Alaihi Asalam Ya Rasool Allah)  The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Get close to me, I got closer. The Messenger of Allah said: Ali Gabriel told you to fast three days in each month. One hundred thousand years of fasting will be written for you in return for the fast of the first day. I said, O Messenger of Allah: Is the feature of this reward with me or is it an order for all people? The Messenger of Allah said: You too will get the reward and whoever does it after you will also get the reward. I said, “O Messenger of Allah, what are those three days?” The Messenger of Allah said: (13, 14, 15) Ali said: Why are these days called days? The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: When Adam was taken out of Paradise and raised to the earth, the sun burned him and his body became black. Gabriel said to them, “Do you want your skin to be white?” Adam said yes!
So Jibreel said: Fast on the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every month. According to Gabriel, When Adam fasted on the first day, his body layer would be white. When he fasted the next day, then the second layer became white. And when he fasts for the third time, his whole body will be white That is why these dates are called days. So Adam was the first person. On whom fasting was obligatory.
A group of Hassan Basri and Allama said that (Alazina Min Qablikum) Refers to Christians because the time and number of fasts of the Christians corresponded to the month and number of fasts of the Muslims. They were also obliged to fast in Ramadan, but it became difficult for them to fast in extreme heat and cold. Then there would be harm in the state of travel and business, so their leaders and chiefs agreed. That every year between the cold and hot seasons set the time of fasting. So he made the spring a day of fasting, and added ten days to the expiation for what he had changed. Thus there will be forty fasts, Some time later, the king of the Christians contracted a mouth disease. He thought that if his illness was good, he would fast for one more week, So the people increased the fast for one week by his order, Then after the death of this king there was another king, so he added three more, so the people completed fifty. Mujahid said that disease spread among the cattle of the Christians and the animals started dying, So the king said increase the number of fasts. People increase ten fasts and then again increase ten more fast.
It is narrated by Shaai, That even if I fast the whole year, I will not fast on the day of doubt ( means 30 of Shaban ) Some say it is the proud day of Sha’ban and some say it is the first day of Ramadan. For this reason, fasting of Ramadan was made obligatory on Christians like us. But they changed Ramadan to another season Because in summer they used to count and fast for thirty days. Then there are other people after him and he had a lot of confidence in his power, So he started fasting a day or two before thirty. Then in the same way the previous ones continued to follow the next ones for a whole fifty days.
Translation: You should abstain from eating and drinking and from committing adultery.
Ahl al-Tafseer says that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to Madina Sharif, So Allah made it obligatory upon His Messenger and the believers to fast on the tenth of Muharram and three days in each month. Even a few days before the Battle of Badr, the command to fast Ramadan came down (And the obligatory fasts mentioned above will be abolished) Allah said that the month of Ramadan has thirty or twenty nine days.
Saeed Bin Aas said: that Ibn Umar said, The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: I and my ummah are mothers Neither calculate nor write is a month and so and so and so (means The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) opened ten fingers and told us that the month is so much and so much and so much).
The reason for calling the city month is that, The word is made up of fame and fame means to be famous and to be white and to rise like, I drew my sword and raised it, and the moon came out.