6th Year Of Hijrat
In 6 A.H., the Holy Prophet PBUH had a dream that he had entered the Sacred Mosque at Makkah. Therefore, he decided to go to Makkah for performing Umrah, or the minor pilgrimage. The Quran says:
“Truly did Allah fulfill the vision for His Messenger: ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, – and without fear”. (48:27)
Accordingly, Hazrat Muhammad PBUH with fourteen hundred unarmed companions, set out for Makkah for the pilgrimage. The Quraish however decided not to allow the Holy Prophet PBUH and his companions to enter Makkah.
The Holy Prophet PBUH, therefore stopped at Hudaibiya, a place at a distance of about three miles from Makkah. From there. he sent a messenger to inform the Quraish that they had not come to wage war, but had come unarmed and wished to enter Makkah only for the purpose of performing the Umrah.
The messenger sent by the Holy Prophet PBUH did not return and, therefore, another was sent. When the second messenger also did not return, the Holy Prophet PBUH sent Hazrat Usman. He, too, was detained by the Quraish and a rumour spread that he was killed. The Holy Prophet PBUH collected all his followers near the oasis of Rizwan. He took from them the oath that they would lay down their lives in the name of Allah. This oath is known as Bait-e-Rizwan. Regarding this oath, the Quran says:
“Allah’s Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore fealty to thee under the tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down tranquility to them: and He rewarded them with a speedy victory” (48:18)
The Quraish were very disturbed when they heard of this and decided to negotiate a treaty of peace with the Muslims. It was called the Treaty of Hudaibiya. It had the. following terms:
1. Muslims would return to Madinah that year.
2. They would be permitted to come for pilgrimage next year but would stay only for three days in Makkah.
3. If a Quraish from Makkah should join ihe Muslims without permission from his guardians, he would be sent back to Makkah. But if a Muslim from Madinah went fo Makkah he Would not be sent back.
4. There would be no fighting for ten years.
Many of the Muslims including Hazrat Umar were not happy over the terms of the treaty which were very harsh and Against the interest of Muslims. Yet the Holy Prophet PBUH accepted them with the command of Allah Who Himself, declared this treaty to be a manifest victory for the believers by saying:
As the subsequent events show, this treaty proved to be beneficial for the cause of Islam. It ended the atmosphere of constant hostility and the non believers of Makkah started coming to Madinah. Having free contacts with the believers, they got he chance to study closely the Islamic way of life and the success achieved by the Holy Prophet PBUH and his followers. After this treaty, a large number of unbelievers accepted Islam. Among them were Khalid bin Walid and Amr bin A’as. Khalid bin Walid later conquered Syria for the Muslims and Amr bin A’as was the conqueror of Egypt.
Numerous tribes entered into alliance with Muslims considering them to a power equal to the Quraish. This alliance opened up an opportunity for the propagation of Islam.
After the Treaty, the Holy Prophet PBUH sent messages of Islam to kings and emperors some of whom embraced Islam. He also despatched envoys to different states, governments and tribes for propagation of Islam.
According to the Treaty, the newly converted Muslims of Makkah were not allowed to visit Madinah so they established a camp and started looting the caravans of the Quraish. Utimately, when the Quraish cancelled the Treaty, they migrated to Madinah.
The Treaty of Hudaibiya was a turning point in the great struggle of Islamic revolution which laid the foundation of later success. It ultimately paved the ground for the peaceful and bloodless conquest of Makkah.