There are ten most blessed and distinguished companions of the Holy Prophet PBUH to whom he gave the glad tidings of entrance into Paradise during their lifetime. They are known as Ashrah Mubasharah.
They all belonged to the Quraish tribe and were among the earliest converts to Islam. They fell into two distinct age groups: Six older men and four young men. They were all bound to each other and to the Prophet PBUH by a network of marriage ties.
The oldest among them was Abu Bakr. He was the first, free male adult to accept Islam and was the chosen companion of the Holy Prophet PBUH in the migration to Madinah. He was also chosen to lead the pilgrimage in 9 A.H. and to lead the prayers during the Prophet’s PBUH last illness. He was the first Khalifa of Islam and scribe of Divine Revelation. He was the father-in-law of Holy Prophet PBUH. Umar was another father-in-law of the Holy Prophet PBUH among the ten companions. He was the second Khalifa of Islam and scribe of the Divine Revelation. Another of the older ones of the ten companions was Said son of Zaid bin Amr who had been one of the believers in monotheism in pre- Islamic Makkah. He was the husband of Hazrat Umar’s sister.
Abu Ubaidah, was one of the first converts and an emigrant to Abyssinia. He was a good commander. The other two older man who had also migrated to Abyssinia were Hazrat Usman and Abdur Rahman. Usman belonged to the Umayyad branch of the Quraish and was a cousin of Abu Sufyan, the leader of Makkah. He had been married successively to two of the Prophet’ s PBUH daughters. Abdur Rahman belonged to Holy Prophet PBUH mother’s tribe. He was a good friend of Usman Of the four, younger men, Zubair and Talha were very close and often acted together; Zubair had migrated to Abyssinia. Talha was related to Abu Bakr Third of the four young companions was Saad. He belonged to the Prophet’s PBUH mother’s tribe.
The youngest of them all was Hazrat Ali. He was the Prophet PBUH first cousin, brought up in his household and later married to his daughter, Fatima.
1) Hazrat Abu Bakr
Hazrat Abu Bakr was the first, free male adult to become a Muslim. He accepted Islam without any hesitation, argument or reluctance. Years later, the Holy Prophet PBUH recalling the conversion of Hazrat Abu Bakr said: “Whenever I offered Islam to anyone, he always showed some reluctance and hesitation and tried to enter into an argument. Abu Bakr was the only person who accepted Islam without any reluctance or hesitation, and without any argument.”
Hazrat Abu Bakr accepted it without any hesitation for which the Prophet PBUH gave him the title of Siddiq’ i.e., “Testifier to the Truth’.
After the Holy Prophet Hazrat Abu Bakr was the greatest missionary of Islam. Several people embarrassed Islam because of his efforts. After his conversion, Hazrat Abu Bakr dedicated his whole life to the service of Islam. for their acceptance of Islam. Many slaves were purchased and set free by him.
Hazrat Abu Bakr gave his daughter Hazrat Aisha in marriage to the Holy Prophet PBUH which further strengthened their friendship.
He always stood by the side of the Holy Prophet PBUH during the most critical period of his mission and shared all hardships. Whenever the Quraish ill-treated the Holy Prophet PBUH, Hazrat Abu Bakr always intervened to protect him. His daughter narrated an incident, when he stopped the people of Makkah from attacking the Prophet PBUH, he came home with his hair pulled out.
Hazrat Abu Bakr accompanied the Holy Prophet PBUH during his migration to Madinah and is referred to in the Quran as “the second of the two'” in the cave of Saur. (9: 40) In Madinah, when the Holy Prophet purchased a plot of land for the construction of a mosque, Hazrat Abu Bakr paid its cost.
In the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Abu Bakr acted as a bodyguard of the Holy Prophet PBUH. He was the first to join the Holy Prophet PBUH when there was confusion in the Muslim army in the Battle of Uhad. In the Battle of Hunain, when most of the companions dispersed, Hazrat Abu Bakr was one of those who continued to attend to the Holy Prophet PBUH, When the Treaty of Hudaibiya was signed and some of the companions were critical of the terms of the treaty, Hazrat Abu Bakr supported the Holy Prophet PBUH.
When the Holy Prophet PBUH asked for contributions for Tabuk Expedition, Hazrat Abu Bakr donated all that he had, saying, that for him and his family, Allah and His Prophet PBUH were enough. He was appointed by the Prophet PBUH as Ameer-e-Hajj and also to lead the congregational prayers during the Prophet’s PBUH last illness.
2) Hazrat UmarAfter his conversion to Islam, Hazrat Umar, from being one of the bitterest enemies and persecutors of the Holy Prophet PBUH, became one of the most Devoted followers. His conversion to Islam in Makkah was of immense value to the Holy Prophet PBUH and his followers. The small number of people who had embraced Islam started to pray openly at Makkah.
After his conversion, Hazrat Umar became the target of enmity and persecution at the hands of the pagans. He migrated to Madinah shortly before the Holy Prophet PBUH own Hijrat. His ties with the Holy Prophet PBUH were strengthened when the Prophet PBUH married his daughter, hafsa.
Hazrat Umar took part in all the battles, In the Battle of Uhad, he was among those who formed a defensive ring round the Holy Prophet PBUH. In the Battle of Trench, he participated in the digging of the Trench. He was also present at the Treaty of Hudaibiya. He took part in the march of Makkah and the Khyber Expedition. He placed half of his wealth at the disposal of the Holy Prophet PBUH for the Tabuk Expedition. Hazrat Umar was constantly in attendance on the Holy Prophet PBUH and was one of his most trusted companions and advisers.
3) Hazrat Usman
Hazrat Usman was the first Umayyad to become a Muslim. When his family learnt of his conversion to Islam, his uncle tied him with ropes and beat him. He was among those early Muslims who suffered torture and persecution at the hands of the pagans of Makkah. Hazrat Usman was a wealthy trader. He liberated many Muslim slaves from their pagan masters.
When the Holy Prophet PBUH and his tribe took shelter in the Shi’ib of Abi Talib because of the social and economic boycott by the Quraish, Hazrat Usman used his influence among the Quraish to ensure supply of provisions to the besieged people.
Hazrat Usman, along with his wife, migrated first to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. He was one of those persons who performed Hijrat in the way of Allah twice.
After the Holy Prophet’s PBUH own Hijrat to Madinah, Hazrat Usman was in constant attendance on him. He took part in all the important battles fought during the life of the Holy Prophet PBUH with the exception of the Battle of Badr.
On that occasion, his wife, Hazrat Ruqayya who was the Holy Prophet’ s PBUH daughter, was in a critical condition. After her death, the Prophet PBUH married his other daughter Umm-e-Kulsum to him, for which he came to be known as Zun Nurain, ‘the Possessor of two light’.
At the time of the treaty of Hudaibiya, when Muslims approached Makkah, the Holy Prophet PBUH sent Hazrat Usman to negotiate with the unbelievers. This shows the confidence and trust with which the Holy Prophet PBUH regarded him.
Hazrat Usman earned the title of Ghani by spending his wealth freely in the service of Islam and the Muslims. In Madinah, Muslims faced scarcity of water. Hazrat Usman bought a well from a Jew for twenty thousand dirhams and offered it to the Muslims for their use.
After the treaty of Hudaibiya, when many tribes accepted Islam, Masjid-e Nabawi became too small to accommodate all Muslims and had to be extended.
On the appeal of the Holy Prophet PBUH for funds for the extension work, Hazrat Usman financed the entire project. He also donated generously at the time of the Tabuk Expedition.
The Holy Prophet PBUH reported to have said about him, “For every apostle of Allah, there was a constant companion be Usman.” (Tirmizi)
The Holy Prophet PBUH was so pleased with him that after the death of his two daughters who were married to Hazrat Usman, he would say, that had he an other daughter, he would be given her in marriage to him, (Tirmizi)
4) Hazrat Ali
Hazrat Ali was the first among children to convert to Islam. He was the second person to become a Muslim, the first being Hazrat Khadija, the wife of the Prophet PBUH When the Holy Prophet PBUH asked the Hashimies to help him in his mission, Hazrat Ali was the only person to respond to his call. He risked his life for the sake of the Holy Prophet PBUH, and slept on his bed when the Prophet PBUH migrated to Madinah. At that time, he had entrusted to Hazrat Ali the task of returning the belongings of the people that had been placed in the custody of the Prophet PBUH.
When the Holy Prophet PBUH announced Mawakhat, declaring the emigrants and helpers as brothers, the Holy Prophet PBUH declared that Ali would be his brother. It is reported that before this was announced, Hazrat Ali came to the Prophet PBUH and said to him: “You have arranged brotherhood among your companions, but you have not arranged brotherhood between me and anyone else.” The Holy Prophet PBUH said to him “You are my brother in this world and the Hereafter. ” (Tirmizi)
The Holy Prophet PBUH gave his youngest daughter, Hazrat Fatima in marriage to him. Hazrat Ali was an exceptionally brave and fierce warrior and showed great values in all the battles. Before the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet PBUH had sent him to discover the enemy’s movements. He was also chosen to carry the Muslim banner.
During the Battle of Uhad, he was one of the few Muslims who defended the Holy Prophet PBUH, After the battle, he along with his wife, Hazrat Fatima, washed the Prophet’s PBUH wounds. He was one of the leaders in the siege of the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraizah. He showed great bravery in the battle of Khyber, using a door as a shield. At Hunain, he defended the Holy Prophet PBUH At the time of the conquest of Makkah, he again carried the Muslim banner.
Hazrat Ali did not take part in the Tabuk Expedition as he remained in Madinah as the Prophet’s PBUH deputy. On his complaint that he was not getting with the army, the Prophet said to him: “You are to me as Harun was Musa, except that there will be no prophet after me.” (Agreed Upon) Hazrat Ali was one of the scribes of the Divine Revelation. He also wrote letters sent out by the Prophet, He was the scribe for the treaty of Hudaibiya and was one of the witnesses to it Hazrat Ali was present at the time of the death of the Holy Prophet PBUH He washed his dead body and was one of those who lowered it into the grave.
5) Hazrat Talha
Hazrat Talha was a grand nephew of Hazrat Abu Bakr. He was born twenty five years before Hijrat. He belonged to the family of Quraish. He accepted Islam at the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr and was amongst the earliest converts.
The unbelievers persecuted him upon his acceptance of Islam, but he bore patiently the pain and suffering of being tested in the path of Allah and His Prophet PBUH Talha was a brave soldier.
He took part in all the battles, except Badr, as he had been sent by the Holy Prophet PBUH on a mission outside Madinah. He saved the life of the Holy Prophet PBUH in the Battle of Uhad, making his own body a shield, to protect him from the swords and spears of his attackers. He continued to do so until the Quraish attack was beaten off. While saving the Prophet PBUH Talha was so badly injured that he became unconscious.
As he regained consciousness, the first question he asked was about the Holy Prophet PBUH, For his bravery, he earned the title of ‘Living Martyr’. The Prophet PBUH is reported to have said: “Whosoever is pleased to see a martyr on the surface of the earth, let him look at Talha bin Ubaydullah. ” (Tirmizi)
Talha was present at the time of the Treaty of Hudaibiya. His bravery resulted in victory for the Muslims in the Battle of Hunain. He also helped the Muslims by providing financial aid during different battles. The Holy Prophet PBUH gave him the title of Fayyaz’ i.e. generous at the time of the Tabuk Expedition. During the Khilafat of both Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar he was a member of the lslamic Council and advised them on problems of the state.
Talha was one of the six companions who were chosen by Hazrat Umar to be appointed as Khalifa after his death. He was not present at the time of Hazrat Usman’s election, but swore allegiance to him, after returning to Madinah. (He was killed during the Khilafat of Hazrat Ali.) Although, he was a wealthy and successful tradesman, he led a simple life.
He would be so anxious and worried on account of his vast wealth, that he would distribute it among the poor Muslims. He was also known for helping people who were in debt, the needy, travelers and widows. About Talha and Zubair (the Holy Prophet PBUH is reported to have said: “Talha and Zubair are my neighbours in Paradise)”. (Tirmizi)
6) Hazrat Zubair
Hazrat Zubair belonged to a family that had accepted Islam in its early stages. tie mother was Hazrat Safiyah, an aunt of the Prophet PBUH Hazrat Khadija, Who was the Prophet ‘s wife and the first woman to accept Islam was Zubair’s When he accepted Islam his uncle became his enemy, He would wrap him in a mattress and light a tire aound him. In this condition, when he would ask of smoke, his uncle would ask him to give up the faith. “No never”, Zuhair would reply firmly, It is impossible for me now to give up the religion of Allah. I must die as a Muslim and not as an unbeliever.”
Hazrat Zubair was among those who migrated to Abyssinia, but soon returned to Makkah. He was a true follower of Islam that is why, he attained a prominent position among the earliest companions of the Prophet PBUH He was always ready to face danger and endure any pain or trouble for the sake of Islam. He remained faithful to the Holy Prophet PBUH even under great hardships. He took part in almost all battles fought during the life of the Holy Prophet PBUH and was known for his bravery.
Hazrat Zubair was very rich and generous and was respected by his tribe. He was one of the six men recommended by Hazrat Umar as his successor to the Khilafat. He was killed during the Khilafat of Hazrat Ali.
About Talha and Zubair, the Holy Prophet PBUH is reported to have said: “Talha and Zubair are my neighbours in Paradise.” (Tirmizi)
The Holy Prophet had given him the title of ‘Disciple of the Messenger of Allah’. Hazrat Umar would often call him ‘one of the Pillars of Faith’.
According to tradition, he was the fifth person who recognized Hazrat Muhammad PBUH as the Prophet. He remained faithful to the Holy Prophet PBUH even under great hardships and took part in the two migrations, first to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. He took part in all the great battles fought during the life of the Holy Prophet PBUH and was known for his faith, courage, bravery and generosity.
7) Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah
He was one of the most distinguished of the Prophet’ s PBUH companions, known for his services to Islam and his loyalty to the Prophet PBUH He was born in Makkah. He accepted Islam at an early age at the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr. After his conversion, he had to face many hardships at the hands of the Quraish.
He took part in the migration to Abyssinia and later to Madinah, he remained a sincere companion of the Holy Prophet PBUH and was always ready to help. He was a brave soldier and commander and took part in most of the battles. In the battle of Badr, he came face to face with his faith was greatly upset, but he had to kill him for the sake of his faith.
During the battle of Uhad, he was one of those Muslims who encircled the Prophet PBUH when the Quraish attacked him. When he was hit on the cheek Abu Ubaidah pulled out the metal inks of his helmet straps out of the wound with his teeth and in the process broke two of his teeth.
At the time of the conquest of Makkah, he was given command of one of the four squardrone into which the Holy Prophet had divided the army. He also took part in the expedition, which the Holy Prophet PBUH sent to Syria just before his death.
The Holy Prophet PBUH had so much faith in him that when a Christian delegation visited the Prophet and asked him to send with them a trustworthy person to act as a judge in disputes amongst them, he sent Abu Ubaidah, He was one of the witnesses of the treaty of Hudaibiya.
After the death of the Holy Prophet PBUH the main issue was the succession to the Khilafat. Abu Ubaidah was one person besides Hazrat Umar whose name was suggested by Hazrat Abu Bakr to be the most suitable person for this post.
But, both of them declined the offer and then Hazrat Umar followed by Abu Ubaidah came forward and swore allegiance to Abu Bakr as the first Khalifa of Islam. Other Muslims followed and thus the solidarity of Islam was maintained.
During the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr, he commanded successful expeditions to Syria and Iran. During the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar, hé conquered Damascus where he is said to be buried.
Abu Ubaidah distinguished himself by his bravery and un-selfishness. The Holy Prophet PBUH gave him the title of Amin-ul-Ummat that means ‘the honest of the nation. He is reported to have said: “For every people, there is a man of trust and the man of trust for this people is Abu Ubaidah.” (Agreed upon)
8) Hazrat Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas
Sa’ ad was a maternal uncle of the Holy Prophet PBUH. He was born in Makkah. He accepted Islam at the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr at the age of seventeen. He was one of the earliest companions of the Holy Prophet PBUH.
In the early years of Islam, the Muslims used to offer their prayers outside Makkah, due to the persecution of the Quraish. One day, during prayers, the unbelievers interrupted them, which led to a fight. Sa’ad struck and wounded one of them, so he was the first Muslim to have shed blood for the cause of Islam.
Sa’ad was a great warrior and took part in ail the battles fought during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet PBUH. At the battle of Uhad, he was one of the defenders of the Holy Prophet PBUH, trying to repel the attackers with his arrows.
The Holy Prophet PBUH, himself, handed him the arrows and declared him to be the best archer along with some other companions. He was present at the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and took part in the conquest of Makkah.
Sa ad bin Abi Waqqas was the commander-in-chief of the Muslim army during the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar in the Battle of Qadisiya that was fought against the Persians, though illness prevented him from taking part in the Battle personally. Hazrat Umar recognized his great military and administrative services. On his death-bed, Hazrat Umar empowered six of the Holy Prophet PBUH most trusted Companions to choose a new Khalifa within three days, Hazrat Saad was selected as one of this group.
During the Khilafat of Hazrat Usman he was made the Governor of Kufa. After the assassination of Hazrat Usman, Sa ad was requested to become Khalifa but he refused.
When Hazrat Ali was chosen as the Khalifa, Sa’ad refused to pay homage to remained away from politics till his death, He was buried in Madinah. He is said to have left large property behind him.
9) Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf
Abdur Rahman_ was born in the 10th year of the Elephants The Holy Prophet Mohammed PBUH and Abdur Rehman had a common ancestor in Kalab. He accepted Islam at the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr.
According to tradition, he was the thirteenth person to became a Muslim. Abdur Rahman was among the first batch of fifteen Muslims that migrated to Abyssinia. He returned to Makkah and later migrated to Madinah. There, he started his own business and soon became a well-to-do merchant.
He took part in all the important battles fought during the life of the Holy Prophet PBUH. In the Battle of Uhad, he received twenty-one wounds and yet stood by the side of the Prophet PBUH when most of the Muslims had run away from the battlefield.
He was one of the respected Companions of the Prophet and a very generous man. He spent most of his wealth to help the needy and poor Muslims.
He was made Ameer-e-Haj during the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Usman. He was among the committee of six persons appointed by Hazrat Umar on his death-bed to choose a Khalifa from amongst themselves. As he was not willing to shoulder the great responsibility, the choice of selecting the new Khalifa was left in his hands.He died in 32 A.H.
10) Saeed bin Zaid
He was a devoted companion of the Holy Prophet PBUH. It is reported in Sahih Bukhari that his father, Zaid bin Amr. who died five years before the first Revelation, believed in the faith of Hazrat Ibrahim and had given ùp idol worship.
When the Holy Prophet PBUH invited people to Islam, Saeed bin Zaid was in forefront of those who believed in the Oneness of Allah and who affirmed their faith in the Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad PBUH He is said to be twenty-eighth person to have become a Muslim.
He was not yet twenty when he embraced Islam. His wife, Fatima, sister of Hazrat Umar, also accepted Islam early. Both of them managed to conceal their acceptance of Islam from the Quraish and especially from Hazrat Umar, who till then had not become a Muslim.
Saeed was one of those people who could read and write. ie was a great warrior. He took part in all the major companion during the life of the Holy Prophet except the Battle of Badr. In the battlefield, he always kept himself ahead of the Holy Prophet PBUH to protect him from the enemy.
After the death of the Holy Prophet PBUH, Saeed continued to play a major role in the Muslim community. During the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar, when the Muslim army invaded Syria, he was made the commander of the infantry. In 14 A.H., he took part in the conquest of Damascus. He was made the Governor of Damascus, but he resigned due to his love for taking part in Jihad. He died in or about 50 A.H.