The Holy Prophet PBUH delivered his last sermon in the plain of Arafat, near the Jabal-e-Rehmat, the “Mount of Mercy”. This sermon is not only remarkable for its eloquence but it is also very significant because it contains an imperishable message for mankind, He said:
“O people! Listen to my words; for I do not know whether I shall be in your midst after this year. remember that you shall have to appear before your Lord Who will demand from you an account of your actions”.
O people! You have rights over your wives and your wives have rights over you. Treat your wives with kindness. Verily, you have taken them on the security of Allah and made them lawful unto you by words of Allah. And feed your slaves as you feed yourselves and clothe your slaves as you clothe yourselves. If they commit a fault which you are unwilling to forgive, then sell them for they are the servants of Allah and not to be harshly treated.
“O People! Listen to my words and remember that all Muslims are brothers unto one another, As you are one brotherhood, you will not take your brother’s belongings which he will not give you out of goodwill. Guard yourself from committing injustice.”
“Behold, worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramazan; pay the Zakat on your property; and perform pilgrimage to the House of Allah.
“Let him that is present tell it to him that is absent.”
With these words, the Holy Prophet finished his address and the following revelation came to him:
This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you lslam as your religion. (5:3)
The Holy Prophet’s PBUH Khutba Hajjat-ul-Wida shows that he knew he was nearing the end of his mission and of his earthly existence, and that this was going to be his last Hajj. It clearly showed that the Holy Prophet PBUH had completed his mission and that islam had been perfected.
This Khutba can be called the first Universal Charter of Human Rights.
The Holy Prophet PBUH declared, át the beginning, that Sovereignty belongs to Allah, Who is One and has no partners. He then said that we are all children of Adam and, therefore, equal and brothers to one another. He declared the sacredness of life, property and honour. of everyone.
In his last sermon, he pointed out in briet the dufies and responsibilities of Muslims towards each other. He laid special emphasis on the rights of women and enjoined that they must be treated with kindness. For the first time, women were given rights and a status in the Arab society. He raised the status of slaves and made them equal in the matter of food and clothing with their masters. On the basis of these teachings the later history of Islam has been moulded.
11TH YEAR OF HIJRAT
Illness and Death
By the 11th Hijri faith prevailed all over Arabia and peace was established throughout the peninsula. In the month of Safar, the Holy Prophet PBUH became ill and on the fifth day of his illness, he shifted to the apartment of Hazrat Aisha. After an illness of thirteen days, he breathed his last on the 12th of Rabi-il-Awwal. His age at the time of death was 63 years. He was buried in the apartment of Hazrat Aisha.