Defeat in the battle of Uhad came as a great shock to the Muslims. They could not understand how they could achieve victory at Badr, when they were heavily outnumbered and shabbily equipped and then suffer defeat at the hands of an army which they had already forced to retreat. Their defeat, however, made it clear to the early Muslims that Victory was not theirs by right and that they could not expect to win every battle they fought.
The Muslim army was weakened before the battle even began, by the desertion of Abdullah bin Ubbay with three hundred men. His reason was that his opinion about fighting inside the city was overlooked in favour of those Muslims who wanted to fight outside the city. He forgot the fact that the Prophet PBUH himself was initially in agreement with him, but he accepted the other view when he realized that it was held by majority of the Muslims. The Prophet PBUH did not see anything wrong in discarding his own view but Abdullah bin Ubbay considered it to be humiliating and deserted with his men.
This, however, did not cause much harm at the beginning of the battle when the Muslims were able to achieve a clear advantage. At that point, however, a mistake was made when the men placed on the pass in the mountain left their position against the orders of the Prophet PBUH, It was a moment of weakness, which overcame those believers who wanted to get a share in the booty and diverted them from the noble goal for which they were fighting. This battle convinced the Muslims that Allah supported them only as long as they supported His cause. They saw with their own eyes the victory change into defeat when they forgot the real reason for battle and ran for the booty.
Another sign of weakness exposed at the Battle of Uhad was that when the Quraish army counter attacked, the Muslims did not fight a determined battle. They were scattered everywhere and some were too busy saving themselves.
They did not respond to the Prophet PBUH when he called them. In fact, most of them left him to face the enemy alone. In these difficult moments, he had only a handful of his companions to help him. When the rumour spread that the Prophet PBUH had been killed, some of the believers dropped their weapons thinking that there was no more reason for them to continue fighting.
lt was necessary for the Muslims to realize their mistake. They were not only defending and protecting the Prophet PBUH but they were also fighting for their faith, defending it from forces which were trying to crush it. Hence it was not proper for a people who believed in Allah and submitted themselves to Him to stop fighting if the Prophet was killed. The Quran says:
“Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many were the messengers that passed away before him. If he died or were slain will ye then turn back on your heels?.. (3:144)
Despite the negative performance of the Muslim army at the Battle of Uhad, It is a fact that earlier in the battle, they had forced the Quraish army to retreat and victory had been within their grasp. To begin with they fought a determined and well planned battle sure to bring about a decisive result. Even though they were heavily outnumbered, many of the fighters displayed heroism at the beginning of the battle as well as when they were a very small number who defended the Prophet PBUH.
The greatest example of heroism was displayed by the Prophet PBUH himself. He was against leaving Madinah to meet the enemy and would have preferred to defend the city from inside. But he accepted the other View when he realized that it was shared by the majority. When things did not go as the Muslims desired, he remained steadfast and did not care for his own safety as the enemy soldiers rushed towards him.
The battle of Uhad was of great significance for the Muslims. The setback that they suffered was not without its advantages. This battle distinguished the true believers from the hypocrites. Those who were sincere, to Allah and His Prophet Muhammad were able to pass this test.
About sixty verses of Surah Al-lmran comment on this batțle, They contain only a mild reproach for the Muslims on their failure. This reproach is mixed With advice to set Muslims on the right path and get better results in future.
4TH YEAR OF HIJRAT
In the 4th year of the Hijrat, the Banu Nazir tribe of the Jews plotted to murder the Prophet PBUH and at the instigation of the Qurarsh planned to rise against the Muslims. The Prophet PBUH sent them a message to leave Madinah within ten days. But they rejected it and shut themselves up in their fortresses.
At this the Prophet PBUH led an army against them and laid siege to their forts. After a Siege of two weeks, the Jews surrendered. They were exiled from Madinah.