When the Holy Prophet PBUH migrated to Madinah, he sought to develop friendly relations with the Jews. For this purpose, he signed a treaty of peace and friendship with them.
The relations were cordial at the beginning, but as more and more people joined Islam, and the Holy Propeht’s position grew stronger, the Jews became apprehensive of his growing power and considered it a threat to their own dominant position in the area. Some of their learned rabbis had embraced Islam.
The Jews, therefore began to deny his prophethood and ridicule his teachings. The Jews were mainly money lenders who would charge heavy interest on loans. The teachings of Islam forbid usury and the charging of interest. The Jews did not like this as it hurt their economy and affected their business.
The Jews used to exploit the rivalry between the two tribes of Madinah Aus and Khazraj to their advantage. With the establishment of brotherhood by the Holy Prophet PBUH, this rivalry ceased and Jews could no longer use it to their advantage.
After the Qiblah was changed from Jerusalem to Makkah, in the second year of Hijrat, the Jews began to organize constant intrigues with the hypocrites and the Quraish of Makkah. They sent deputations to the Quraish and the Arab tribes to attack Madinah and even offered them financial help. They also started a slander compaign against the Holy Prophet PBUH and the Muslims. They even tried to murder him.
These actions were a violation of the terms of the agreement which they had made with the Holy Prophet PBUH who was now forced to take practical steps against them. He decided that the Jews should not be allowed to remain in Madinah and they were expelled from the city.
Performance of Umrah
According to the Treaty of Hudaibiya, signed in 6 A.H., Muslims could perform Umrah the next year. They were also entitled to stay for three days in Makkah. The Holy Prophet PBUH, therefore, undertook the journey to Makkah. Before leaving he asked his companions not to take any arms with them. They were allowed to enter Makkah where they performed Umrah. After three days the Holy Prophet PBUH left Makkah with his followers.
8TH YEAR OF HIJRAT
Battle of Mutah
The Holy Prophet had sent a message with a letter to the Roman Emperor who was a Christian. The messenger was killed at Mutah, a place in Syria. The Holy Prophet, therefore, sent an army of three thousand Muslims under the leadership of Zaid bin Haris. After the deaths of Hazrat Zaid, Hazrat Ja’afar and Hazrat Abdulah bin Rawahah, one after the other, the Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Walid defeated the enemy.