Names and Times of Prayers
The names of the five obligatory prayers are:
1. Fajr: This Is An Early Morning Prayer
The time of this prayer commences after the break of dawn and ends just before sunrise. It s makruh or undesirable to say prayers when the sun is rising No nafl prayer is to be said till the sun rises well.
2. Zuhr: (Early afternoon)
The time of this prayer commences when the sun begins to decline and the shadows of things cease to decrease. It ends when the shadow of everything becomes equal to twice the size of its shadow at noon or mid-day.
No prayer is to be said of the Quran recited at the time of the decline of the sun.
3. Asr: (Late afternoon)
The time of this prayer commences after the end of the time for Zuhr prayers and ends before sunset.
4. Maghrib: (Evening)
The time of this prayer commences immediately after sunset and ends on the fading of twilight.
No prayer is to be said at the time of the setting of the sun.
5. Isha: (Early night)
The time of this prayer commences after the fading of twilight and ends before dawn but it is desirable to say this prayer before midnight.
Number of Raka’at in the five daily prayers
The five daily prayers consist of:
(a) Farz or obligatory
(b) Sunnat (traditional) i.e., the Holy Prophet PBUH practice.
The Sunnat is divided into Sunnat Muakkadah and Sunnat Ghair Muakkadah.
Sunnat Muakkadah is meant as an act that the Holy Prophet PBUH always did except for some valid reason. The Raka’at which are Sunnat Muakkadah must be offered.
By Sunnat, Ghair Muakkadah is meant an act that the Holy Prophet did but which he sometimes did not do without any valid reason. The offering of Raka’at which are Sunnat Ghair Muakkadah entitles a person to spiritual reward.
Pre-Farz Sunnat (Muakkadah)
2 pre-Farz sunnat 2 farz Total = 4 Raka’at
4 pre-Farz Sunnat 4 farz
2 Post-Farz Sunnat (Muakkadah) 2 Nafl Total = 12 Raka’at
4 Pre-Farz Sunnat 4 Farz Total= 8 Raka’at
3 Farz 2 Post-Farz Sunnat (Muakkadah) 2 Nafl Total = 7 Raka’at
4 Pre-Farz Sunnat (Ghair Muakkadah) 4 Farz 2 Post-Farz Sunnat (Muakkadah) 2 Nafl 3 Witr -Wajib 2 Nafl Total= 17 Raka’at
Components of Prayer:
Each Rakat consists of:
A. Six items which are Farz:
(1) Takbir Tahrima
(6) Qa’adah Akhira
If any item is left out, the Salat shall have to be repeated.
B. Thirteen items which are Wajib.
If any item is left out then Sajdah Sahav (Prostration due to forgetfulness) becomes necessary and this shall remove the defect.
C. Twenty items which are Sunnat.
If any item classified as Sunnat is left out due to a mistake, no Sajdah Sanav is necessary and the Salat does not become void.
Conditions of Prayer:
Before a person can say his regular prayers, the following conditions must be fulfilled; otherwise, the prayers would be void:
A. The body of the person must be clean.
B. The clothes worn must be clean and free from all impurities.
C. The place where the prayers are to be said must be clean and free from all impurities.
D. The ‘Satar’ (those parts of the body which should be kept covered) must be properly covered. For a male, the Satar consists of the portion of the body from the navel to the knees. For a female, her entire body with the exception of her face, hands, and feet is Satar.
E. It must be the time for the particular prayer to be offered.
F. The Qiblah must be faced while saying the prayers.
G. Intention or to intend must be declared for saying the kind of prayer i..e.
Farz, Sunnat, etc., of the particular prayer time i.e., Fajr, Zuhr, etc. that one is offering.