Settlement of Muhajirin:
The Muslims in Madinah belonged to two categories. Those who had migrated to Madinah firom Makkah were known as Muhajirin or emigrants. Those who belonged to Madinah and had given shelter to the emigrants and helped them were known as Ansar or the Helpers. The emigrants were generaliy poor as even those who had been well off in Makkah had left all their belongings behind when they migrated.
The Holy Prophet PBUH established brotherhood between these two groups of Muslims. He told the Ansars that the Muhajirin were in need of help, and so he wanted to create brotherhood between them. The Ansar willingly agreed to this. They took their Muhajirin brothers to their houses, treated them with hospitality and shared all their possessions with them. The Holy Quran mentions this in these words:
The emigrants and their hosts were united into a bond of brotherhood, which proved, in practice, to be stronger than real brotherhood. Even the enmity between the two tribes of Madinah, Aus and Khazraj was forgotten, as mentioned in the Holy Quran: And remember with gratitude Allah’s favour on you: for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His grace, ye became brethren. (3:103)
Treaty with the Jews: (Charter of Madinah):
There were three main tribes of Jews: Banu Qainuqa, Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza, settled in the suburbs of Madinah in their own strong fortresses.
The Holy Prophet PBUH realized that the foundation of the Islamic Empire would be very weak unless it was based upon the support of all the people living in Madinah, The situation called for a strong measure of co-ordination and adjustment, particularly as the Muslims were seriously threatened by the Quraish. Therefore, as soon as the Holy Prophet was settled in Madinah, he called together the Muslims and the Jewish tribes for consultation. He invited them to consider the possibility of establishing some system of co-operation whereby-he safety, of Madinah might be secured.
After an exchange of views, an agreement was reached which granted equal rights to the Jews with full liberty to follow their own faith without any interference by the Holy Prophet PBUH or his followers, It stated that the Muslims and Jews were allies and would help each other, that neither party would commit aggression against the other, and that in case of an attack on Madinah, both Muslims and Jews would defend it.
This treaty is a landmark in the history of mankind, It guaranteed freedom of worship for the Jews. It is also guaranteed protection of their life and property.
It was an attempt to establish friendly and cordial relations between the Muslims and the Jews of Madinah to live together as peaceful citizens and defend the town from all invaders.
By virtue ot this agreement, the relations between the Muslims and the Jews were regulated and a basis for the governance of Madinah was provided. Each section would have complete freedom of religion and complete autonomy with regard to its internal affairs, but would be knit into an administrative system that would be presided over by the Holy Prophet PBUH.
The treaty also established the Holy Prophet PBUH the leader and the head of the state of Madinah. He came to be recognized as the undisputed leader ruler, judge and the commander of the people of Madinah.