Another article of Islamic belief is faith in destiny: its good and evil. The Arabic word for destiny, Qadr, implies the measuring out of something or fixing a limit to it.
The word “Qadr has the same root as ‘Qadir, one of Allah’s names, meaning All Powerful’. Everything in the universe is subject to the law of Allah. This universal law is explained in the following verse of the Holy Quran: “Glorify the name of thy Guardian-Lord Most High, Who hath created, and further given order and proportion, Who hath ordained laws. And granted guidance. (87: 1-3)
Here four things are mentioned regarding every object of creation including man, its growth, its completion, its measure and its guidance to its goal which is brought about according to a law or measure within which everything works by Divine Guidance. It is only in this sense that a Muslim can be said to have faith in Qadr.
The basic concept which the word Taqdir furnishes and which is substantiated by the Quran and the Sunnah is that this universe and everything contained therein is the outcome of the planning and will of the Creator. He has created and fashioned it with infinite wisdom and with a definite purpose: He is not only supervising the universe but also directing it to its destined end. What Islam really stresses is that the Lord is the Supreme Power of the universe and He creates and directs it with a rational will.
Allah’s knowledge encompasses all things, possible and impossible. He is eternally and absolutely knowing of everything: the Quran says:” the decree continues to descend among them, that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah indeed encompasses all things in Knowledge. ” (65:12)
Allah created man with certain powers, which he could exercise under certain imitations and it is the exercise of these powers that produce good or evil. For instance, Allah has gifted man with the power of speech which he can use Cither to do good or evil to humanity, either to tell a truth or to utter a falsehood.
Similarly, Allah has endowed man with numerous other powers that may be used either for good or for evil. He has given human beings freedom of choice their actions, but He has also made them responsible for what they do as for He has shown them the difference between right and wrong. The Quran says: “The truth is from your Lord; let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject (it) (18:29)
Allah’s Knowledge, Will and Power are Absolute and Unbounded, therefore, He knows the results of all events before their occurence. A human being, however, does not have access to this knowledge and he acts in accordance with a desire from within which makes him responsible for his deeds and he is then happy or unhappy with the consequences.
The Holy Prophet PBUH explained this belief in the following words: “If something befalls you, don’t say if now I would have done such and such, rather say: Allah foreordained this, and whatever He wishes, He does; for, verily, the phrase “If only I would have”, makes way for the work of Satan” (Muslim)
The Holy Prophet PBUH once asked one of his companions: “Shall I not guide you to words that are a treasure from the treasures of Paradise? ” He said: “Of course! O Messenger of Allah.” The Prophet PBUH said: “There is no ability or power except through Allah” (Bukhari and Muslim).
The reality of these words is the crux of a full and proper understanding of Qadr.